Rounded Stones On Mars Evidence Of Flowing Water

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Observations by NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity have revealed areas with gravel and pebbles that are characteristic of a former riverbed. Researchers, including members of the Niels Bohr Institute, have analysed their shapes and sizes and the rounded pebbles clearly show that there has been flowing water on Mars. The results are published in the scientific journal, Science.

The Mars rover’s stereo camera took pictures of a few areas with densely packed pebbles, cemented together like concrete. The image field of an area named Hottah was a mosaic of approximately 1.4 meters x 80 centimeters. But when the picture is taken at an angle from the camera arm’s two meter high mast down towards the ground-level, it gives a slightly distorted view in which the size of the rocks depend on their location in the image frame. To remedy this, the researcher first had to process the image so the proportions are comparable.

“Next, we divided the image into smaller fields of 10 mm and analysed the gravel, which consists of coarse grains of sand around 1/3 mm. We examined the pebbles which are between 4 and 40 mm in greater detail. Altogether we made a thorough analysis of 515 pebbles”, explains Asmus Koefoed, research assistant in the Mars Group at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen.

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