Archive

Posts Tagged ‘disks’

‘Death Stars’ In Orion Blast Planets Before They Even Form


Artist's concept. Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; B. Saxton

Artist’s concept. Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; B. Saxton

The Orion Nebula is home to hundreds of young stars and even younger protostars known as proplyds. Many of these nascent systems will go on to develop planets, while others will have their planet-forming dust and gas blasted away by the fierce ultraviolet radiation emitted by massive O-type stars that lurk nearby.

A team of astronomers from Canada and the United States has used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to study the often deadly relationship between highly luminous O-type stars and nearby protostars in the Orion Nebula. Their data reveal that protostars within 0.1 light-years (about 600 billion miles) of an O-type star are doomed to have their cocoons of dust and gas stripped away in just a few millions years, much faster than planets are able to form.

“O-type stars, which are really monsters compared to our Sun, emit tremendous amounts of ultraviolet radiation and this can play havoc during the development of young planetary systems,” remarked Rita Mann, an astronomer with the National Research Council of Canada in Victoria, and lead author on a paper in the Astrophysical Journal. “Using ALMA, we looked at dozens of embryonic stars with planet-forming potential and, for the first time, found clear indications where protoplanetary disks simply vanished under the intense glow of a neighboring massive star.”

Link To Full Story

Mystery Of Planet-forming Disks Explained By Magnetism


Artist's conception. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s conception. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Astronomers say that magnetic storms in the gas orbiting young stars may explain a mystery that has persisted since before 2006.

Researchers using NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope to study developing stars have had a hard time figuring out why the stars give off more infrared light than expected. The planet-forming disks that circle the young stars are heated by starlight and glow with infrared light, but Spitzer detected additional infrared light coming from an unknown source.

A new theory, based on three-dimensional models of planet-forming disks, suggests the answer: Gas and dust suspended above the disks on gigantic magnetic loops like those seen on the sun absorb the starlight and glow with infrared light.

“If you could somehow stand on one of these planet-forming disks and look at the star in the center through the disk atmosphere, you would see what looks like a sunset,” said Neal Turner of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

Link To Full Story

NASA Study Shows Disks Don’t Need Planets To Make Patterns


Image Credit: NASA Goddard/W. Lyra (JPL-Caltech), M. Kuchner (Goddard)

Image Credit: NASA Goddard/W. Lyra (JPL-Caltech), M. Kuchner (Goddard)

Many young stars known to host planets also possess disks containing dust and icy grains, particles produced by collisions among asteroids and comets also orbiting the star. These debris disks often show sharply defined rings or spiral patterns, features that could signal the presence of orbiting planets. Astronomers study the disk features as a way to better understand the physical properties of known planets and possibly uncover new ones.

But a new study by NASA scientists sounds a cautionary note in interpreting rings and spiral arms as signposts for new planets. Thanks to interactions between gas and dust, a debris disk may, under the right conditions, produce narrow rings on its own, no planets needed.

“When the mass of gas is roughly equal to the mass of dust, the two interact in a way that leads to clumping in the dust and the formation of patterns,” said lead researcher Wladimir Lyra, a Sagan Fellow at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. “In essence, the gas shepherds the dust into the kinds of structures we would expect to be see if a planet were present.”

Full Story, Video, and Links: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasa-study-shows-disks-dont-need-planets-to-make-patterns/#.UeBFsz7h6-k