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Posts Tagged ‘spitzer space telescope’

Spitzer Spies An Odd, Tiny Asteroid


Astronomers using NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope have measured the size of an asteroid candidate for NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), a proposed spacecraft concept to capture either a small asteroid, or a boulder from an asteroid. The near-Earth asteroid, called 2011 MD, was found to be roughly 20 feet (6 meters) in size, and its structure appears to contain a lot of empty space, perhaps resembling a pile of rubble. Spitzer’s infrared vision was key to sizing up the asteroid.

“From its perch up in space, Spitzer can use its heat-sensitive infrared vision to spy asteroids and get better estimates of their sizes,” said Michael Mommert of Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, lead author of a new study appearing today, June 19, in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. David Trilling, also of Northern Arizona University, leads the team of astronomers.

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Astro Pro-Am: Professional And Amateur Astronomers Join Forces


Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; Optical: Detlef Hartmann; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; Optical: Detlef Hartmann; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Long before the term “citizen science” was coined, the field of astronomy has benefited from countless men and women who study the sky in their spare time. These amateur astronomers devote hours exploring the cosmos through a variety of telescopes that they acquire, maintain, and improve on their own. Some of these amateur astronomers specialize in capturing what is seen through their telescopes in images and are astrophotographers.

What happens when the work of amateur astronomers and astrophotographers is combined with the data from some of the world’s most sophisticated space telescopes? Collaborations between professional and amateur astronomers reveal the possibilities and are intended to raise interest and awareness among the community of the wealth of data publicly available in NASA’s various mission archives. This effort is particularly appropriate for this month because April marks Global Astronomy Month, the world’s largest global celebration of astronomy.

The images in this quartet of galaxies represent a sample of composites created with X-ray data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and optical data collected by an amateur astronomer.

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Dramatic New Portrait Helps Define Milky Way’s Shape, Contents


Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Wisconsin-Madison

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Wisconsin-Madison

Using more than 2 million images collected by NASA’s orbiting Spitzer Space Telescope, a team of Wisconsin scientists has stitched together a dramatic 360-degree portrait of the Milky Way, providing new details of our galaxy’s structure and contents.

The new composite picture, using infrared images gathered over the last decade, was unveiled today at a TED conference in Vancouver. The galactic portrait provides an unprecedented look at the plane of our galaxy, using the infrared imagers aboard Spitzer to cut through the interstellar dust that obscures the view in visible light.

“For the first time, we can actually measure the large-scale structure of the galaxy using stars rather than gas,” explains Edward Churchwell, a University of Wisconsin-Madison professor of astronomy whose group compiled the new picture, which looks at a thin slice of the galactic plane. “We’ve established beyond the shadow of a doubt that our galaxy has a large bar structure that extends halfway out to the sun’s orbit. We know more about where the Milky Way’s spiral arms are.”

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Mystery Of Planet-forming Disks Explained By Magnetism


Artist's conception. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s conception. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Astronomers say that magnetic storms in the gas orbiting young stars may explain a mystery that has persisted since before 2006.

Researchers using NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope to study developing stars have had a hard time figuring out why the stars give off more infrared light than expected. The planet-forming disks that circle the young stars are heated by starlight and glow with infrared light, but Spitzer detected additional infrared light coming from an unknown source.

A new theory, based on three-dimensional models of planet-forming disks, suggests the answer: Gas and dust suspended above the disks on gigantic magnetic loops like those seen on the sun absorb the starlight and glow with infrared light.

“If you could somehow stand on one of these planet-forming disks and look at the star in the center through the disk atmosphere, you would see what looks like a sunset,” said Neal Turner of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

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Commentary On The Press Release “A Drastic Chemical Change Occurring In Birth Of Planetary System: Has The Solar System Also Experienced it?”

February 13, 2014 Leave a comment

An infrared image of the protostar L1527 taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Credit: J. Tobin/NASA/JPL-Caltech

An infrared image of the protostar L1527 taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope.
Credit: J. Tobin/NASA/JPL-Caltech

Stars are formed by the contraction of interstellar gas and dust. Around a protostar, gas and dust form a disk in which planets are eventually formed. Then, are the chemical compositions of the interstellar cloud and the disk identical? The new ALMA observations show that the answer is ‘no.’ This finding has a large impact on understandings of the formation process of planets and protoplanetary disks.

The international research team, led by Dr. Nami Sakai, an assistant professor at the Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, observed a baby star L1527 in the constellation Taurus with ALMA. The team observed radio emission from cyclic-C3H2 [note 1] and sulfur monoxide (SO) molecules to analyze the motion and temperature of the gas around the baby star.

L1527 is a well-known protostar (baby star) and many astronomers have pointed telescopes at it. For example, NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope took infrared images of the star. The stellar light escapes through a cavity excavated by a powerful bipolar gas flow from the star and illuminates the surrounding gas, which makes a butterfly-shaped nebula extending in the east-west direction (Figure 1). Past radio observations revealed that gas is circling around the star to form a disk and we see the disk edge-on.

Radio observations by ALMA have the advantage of being able to see the gas directly, which is invisible in infrared light. Various molecules in the gas emit characteristic radiation as radio waves under characteristic conditions (temperature, density, chemical compositions). Therefore astronomers can investigate the nature of the gas by observing various molecules.

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Stormy Stars? NASA’s Spitzer Probes Weather On Brown Dwarfs

January 7, 2014 Leave a comment

Artist's concept. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Western Ontario/Stony Brook University

Artist’s concept. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Western Ontario/Stony Brook University

Swirling, stormy clouds may be ever-present on cool celestial orbs called brown dwarfs. New observations from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope suggest that most brown dwarfs are roiling with one or more planet-size storms akin to Jupiter’s “Great Red Spot.”

“As the brown dwarfs spin on their axis, the alternation of what we think are cloud-free and cloudy regions produces a periodic brightness variation that we can observe,” said Stanimir Metchev of the University of Western Ontario, Canada. “These are signs of patchiness in the cloud cover.”

Brown dwarfs form as stars do, but lack the mass to fuse atoms continually and blossom into full-fledged stars. They are, in some ways, the massive kin to Jupiter.

Scientists think that the cloudy regions on brown dwarfs take the form of torrential storms, accompanied by winds and, possibly, lightning more violent than that at Jupiter or any other planet in our solar system. However, the brown dwarfs studied so far are too hot for water rain; instead, astronomers believe the rain in these storms, like the clouds themselves, is made of hot sand, molten iron or salts.

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NASA Space Telescopes Find Patchy Clouds On Exotic World

October 1, 2013 Leave a comment

Astronomers using data from NASA’s Kepler and Spitzer space telescopes have created the first cloud map of a planet beyond our solar system, a sizzling, Jupiter-like world known as Kepler-7b.

The planet is marked by high clouds in the west and clear skies in the east. Previous studies from Spitzer have resulted in temperature maps of planets orbiting other stars, but this is the first look at cloud structures on a distant world.

“By observing this planet with Spitzer and Kepler for more than three years, we were able to produce a very low-resolution ‘map’ of this giant, gaseous planet,” said Brice-Olivier Demory of Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. Demory is lead author of a paper accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. “We wouldn’t expect to see oceans or continents on this type of world, but we detected a clear, reflective signature that we interpreted as clouds.”

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